New EUFAJ 2 / 2017: China, Africa, Latin America, Eastern Partnership, Turkey, Montenegro

The new number 2 / 2017 of „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“ (EUFAJ), an eQuarterly published by LIBERTAS – European Institute GmbH, working pro-European Integration, can be downloaded directly under:, or via the Website under  .

EUFAJ is a non-profit project and free of charge. All older issues can be downloaded on our website where you find other information about EUFAJ.

In 2/2017, you find in EUFAJ the following articles, among others:

  • Hard Times for Soft Power: Germany’s China Challenge (Angela Stanzel)
  • The Turkish Economy Today
  • The „Marshall Plan with Africa“: Africa and Europe – A New Partnership for Development and Peace
  • Women in Power – The Example of Latin America (Carmen Aguilera Garcia), Statistics on Women in National Parliaments
  • Security Threats Caused by Climate Change – Case Study on the Republic of Moldova (Gheorghe Racovita)
  • Regional Geopolitical Changes and the Russian-Armenian Relations (Lilit Vardanian)
  • The Prospects of the EU–Armenia Partnership within the ENP Review: Is a Eurasian Economic Union – EU balance feasible? (Aram Terzyan)
  • Vive la France or what does the victory of Emmanuel Macron mean for Europe and Eastern Partnership Countries? (Grisha Aghajanyan)
  • The Consolidation of Inter-Institutional Cooperation and Communication Mechanism on CSDP-related Matters – Study on the Republic of Georgia (George Niculescu, Grazvydas Jasutis, Kakha Gogolashvili)
  • Public Administration Reform at the Local and Regional Level in the Eastern Partnership Countries – Developments since 2012 in the Field of Decentralisation (Vyacheslav Tolkovanov, Juraj Nemec et al.)
  • Salina Ulcinj: European natural treasure still threatened in Montenegro

We welcome contributions from the personal and professional environment of our readers – scientific ones or policy-focused, on international, comparative subjects, or on  EU /  third country relations, inner-country developments, or international jpolicy etc.). All articles are published in English. We do not raise any fees for publishing articles.


New EUFAJ 1/2017: Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood, Belarus, Balkan, Albanian rivers, Faroes, Nagorno-Karabakh Referendum, Azerbaijan arrest warrants, Armenian NGO chief deported from Russia, warfare by private companies …

The new issue 1/2017 of European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (EUFAJ) is out. See articles on:

  • EU and Egypt Revolution after 2012,
  • Muslim Brotherhood should be declared terrorist,
  • private enterpreneurs running wars,
  • EU Fund for Sustainable Development – a new instrument,
  • Belarus crisis and Europe,
  • Russian Deportation of an Armenian NGO chief,
  • the Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) referendum from 20.2.2017,
  • Azerbaijan arrest warrants against European parliamentarians,
  • Faroe Islands will hold referendum – with far reaching possible consequences,
  • Western Balkans and the EU Annual Reports about possible membership,
  • Balkan rivers and environment: Sava in Serbia, Mavrovo Park in Macedonia, Vjosa valley in Albania: national park vs. hydropower plants,
  • EU for Multilateral Investment Courts,
  • Let’s go to Bornholm Island – with a new European initiative.

See this issue of EUFAJ under:



Tbilisi/Georgia, EaP Civil Society Forum: Is Donald Trump enemy no. 1 for Europe’s freedom?

Donald Trump is Europe’s enemy no. 1 – because he wants to violate art. 5 NATO Treaty on the mutual defense clause and wants the US‘ intervention to be dependent „if the bill has been paid“. A real problem for European NATO states, and no miracle that Putin praised Trump to be a „wise man“. This was no. 1 out of 10 policy theses set up by Hans-Jürgen Zahorka, Chief Editor of European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (, during an Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum in Tblisi/Georgia end of July 2016, when speaking on „Security Challenges of the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood“. This event was organised jointly by the EaP Civil Society Forum, Brussels (, represented by its Co-Chair Krzysztof Bobinski, and the Liberal Academy Tbilisi, whose director Lasha Tughashi is also National Coordinator of the EaP CSF National Platform in Georgia. It was opened furthermore by Kakha Gogolashvili, Director of EU Studies at Rondeli Foundation (GFSIS), and Ambassador Janos Herman, head of the EU Delegation in Georgia. Here is what Hans-Jürgen Zahorka expressed:

Challenge no. 2: Erdogan. While it was legitimate to do everything necessary against a military putsch against a democratically elected government, the behaviour of the Turkish president after the putsch attempt shakes the whole region: not only in most of the EaP Caucasus countries there is now uncertainty, incalculability what Turkey wants really. He breaks democracy and human rights in a big NATO state, and his attempts to flirt with Putin are neither credible nor acceptable for NATO. There is a lack of consistency in Turkish NATO membership attitude, and the alliance has somehow to react, as there is a rule that NATO means also democracy, human rights and openness. This is also the fundament of the EU-NATO joint declaration from 8.7.2016.

Challenge no. 3 is nationalism, populism, lack of solidarity between European states- as there are populist and nationalist parties now in every country, and solidarity e.g. in the refugee question is often just not existing. Had the EU Member States found a solution for a proportional (including economic strength) distribution of asylum seekers, there would have been no need for a shaky Turkish refugee agreement. This new egoism is also expressed by the rising number of protectionist acts in the WTO member states, at present 22 per month, and of course by the Brexit of the UK from the EU, which brings a high economic damage – and this mainly to the UK. So the danger comes from within – also in the form of xenophobe, racist, glorifying the own country populist parties (partly financed by Russian institutions!), which are anti-Western, anti-liberal, anti-European integration oriented. In short: who want to turn back the wheel, which requires a vivid, attentive civil society in all the EU and EaP member states.

Challenge no. 4: CSDP (EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy) will gain momentum within the EU – in particular if Trump ever would win and the Brexit approaches. Then the Europeans really have to do something. The German Federal Armed Forces White Book from July 2016 is a signal for the right way, in stressing a European integrated defense, but of course also the EU Strategy Paper from a week before.

Challenge no 5: We will get an EU army – but (unfortunately) not today or tomorrow, but after tomorrow. The development will go step by step, taking also in account possible external threats which may accelerate it. Maybe this army will be much more „electronic“ than a traditional army, but there will be EU structures. It can be taken for sure that unlike in former conflicts a „levée en masse“ won’t be neither necessary nor possible, but due to the modern ways of tomorrow’s warfare, electronic warfare, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) etc. will play a more pivotal role then anytime before – also in preventing such conflicts. We have already pooled monetary policy, when national competences don’t do it anymore. We can also pool our armed forces.

Challenge no. 6: hybrid threats. This is now a clear part of the reaction potential under the CSDP, and the EU reaction (and the EU is more able than NATO to respond to hybrid threats!) was started with a Joint Declaration from 6.4.2016. It should be directed against all ‚divide et impera‘ and attempts to destabilize a country. In the EaP, this can be done with a better know-how about the potential of small enterprises. So social unrest can be prevented – and the economy can be brought to thriving mode. In this context, I see an urgent need for informing SMEs about the chapters of the free trade agreements, where signed, to be de facto implemented – and they should be much better known to the economy. Hybrid threats shall also – see proposal no. 18 of the Joint Declaration – be treated together between EaP countries and the EU. There will be common risk assessments, and analyses and action plans of common activities. The EU, however, is asymmetrically concerned by hybrid threats, which imposes the chance for EaP countries to tell their own experiences in some countries of the EU. To meet civil society there should be a new task for the EaP civil society.

Callenge no. 7: Terrorism.. EaP countries are affected differently, but this can change very fast. In this context, a full role of the INTCEN EU Intelligence Centre must be advocated, with compulsory exchange of information. EaP countries can and should take part in this exchange – to the benefit of all.

Challenge no. 8: The EU was not able to prevent frozen conflicts and conflicts in its Neighbourhood. No miracle, as no instruments were available. But for the future, the EU must have a close look on its geographic environment. It is advocated, n this context, to explore the possible deplacement of EU peacekeepers to Nagorno-Karabakh, together with simultaneous EU-monitored negotiations which might last for many years. Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as the directly concerned Karabakhis should and could agree to this – and they would, in view of the alternatives which are not possible for various reasons (Russia, USA, OSCE, NATO).

Challenge no. 9: The EU and the EaP countries should endorse the strengthening of the OSCE – with a binding mediation mechanism, with armed peacekeepers etc. Countries or regional insurgents etc. who do not recognise the legitimacy of the OSCE must be isolated as far as possible, and modern communication can also contribute to keep a distance between these de-facto governments and the populations.

Challenge no. 10: The whole EU and the EaP countries, if possible, should endorse a value-oriented legislation and state-building. Security is more than the absence of war. In this context, the principle of being firm on principles and values of the EU while dialoguing with Russia is right. Borders cannot be changed by force. And the rules as in art. 2 Treaty of the EU can be accepted also by every EaP state, as they represent the common denominator of European civilisation: human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, rule of law, human rights, minority protection, and this in a society of pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, ustice, solidarity and gender equality.


See also the three illustrated posts on EUFAJ’s Facebook page:


New EUFAJ 1 / 2016: From EU-China relations to Corruption in the Balkans

The 1st quarter issue 2016 of „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“ can be downloaded now. EUFAJ, an eQuarterly is a non-profit project and edited by LIBERTAS – European Institute GmbH, a pro-European Integration acting think tank, and an Editorial Advisory Board. The editors have experience in working in EU or EU Member State institutions, or from universities  We will put it gradually on a commercial basis, but it will remain available for free.

Please, have a look at the new EUFAJ issue no. 1 / 2016 which is available under this link:

This time with the following articles, among others

  • European Union – China Relations
  • The Asia-Pacific Region and the European Union
  • How to Work for EU Foreign Policy Goals in the UN
  • Lessons for the EU from Denmark’s Relations with Greenland and the Faroe Islands – Secession on the State and Supra-State Level
  • Does Russia Have an Imperialistic Foreign and Security Policy? – A Discourse on Empires
  • Is Russia Withdrawing from Rule of Law Principles?
  • Azerbaijan: Searching for the ‘Armenian Lobby’
  • Corruption in the Western Balkans: Its Impact on Governance
  • The Conduct of the Constitutional Referendum in Armenia on 6 December, 2015
  • Rural Development in Armenia: Significance of Non-Farm Activity
  • Strategic Challenges for a New Model of European Economic Development
  • Intellectual Property in Kosovo: The Case of Musical Works
  • Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of Short-lived Climate Forcers

If you want to see the older issues (incl. a Special with the English text of the Boris Nemtsov Report), please see under There you find also other information about EUFAJ and its editors.

We welcome contributions – scientific ones or policy-focused, on international, comparative subjects, or views of EU /  third country relations. You can always ask if a special subject would be convenient or just send them to  Word format would be appreciated. We do not raise any fees for published articles.

We are also accessible on Facebook, where you can be informed about our publications and many other activities: EUFAJ can also be reached via LinkedIn – under, then under „EUFAJ“  in the Search Box.

With this publication, we offer a permanent analysis of Europe’s foreign, international and comparative policy in all its facets – 4 x a year, with 100-260 pages each time. This subject is getting more and more important – without doubt.


The EU should establish a real Intelligence Service

Since several years, the European diplomatic service (European Extermal Action Service, EEAS) disposes of a small intelligence service unit, where less tan 100 people work, called INTCEN. It is jealously „supervised“ by national governments. These are not the „European spies“, and there is no James Bond smell in the air, anyway. The studies made are sometimes questioned, and there is a lot work done on the basis of open sources (which is indispensable for intelligence Services, too). The work of INTCEN is hardly discussed, and the work which could be done by them not either.

However, the terrorist events since mid-November 2015 in Paris, and elsewhere, brought a new push to these discussions. The ALDE chairman in the European Parliament, Guy Verhofstadt, pleaded in the meantime for a European Intelligence Service, and some Member States‘ ministers of interior pleaded, for evident reasons, for a closer cooperation between the EU intelligence services. This is indeed necessary – only a minority of services has effectuated a necessary information exchange about possible terrorists by the end of the year, which had been approved on governments‘ level.

What we need in the European Union, is a real military and extremist-oriented Intelligence Service, in addition – and in cooperation with – all the national services. A permanent informaton exchange, in the sense of a two-way traffic, has to be anchored legally, in order to have it at all. The same also for a parliamentary supervision, for which a special committee of the European Parliament should be created, based on the experience of some Member States. Art. 42-47 Treaty of the European Union(TEU) allow this, in my provisional legal opinion, even without treaty changes; art. 42 (6) allowing also activities of a part of Member States. It would just need the courage of some of them to launch an activity. We do do not need a new EU agency or similar, we just need to upgrade INTCEN, give them a reasonable legal framework, give them reasonable tasks which may consist of the coordination and compulsory information exchange between Member States‘ agencies. Whoever observes the external policy analytics capacity of the EU should not say „forget it“ and be allowed for closure of activities – just in contrary. We need also here „more Europe“ – an intelligence centre at least for coordination, with significantly more staff than now (could be also seconded from Member States‘ agencies), and with reasonable competences, and a permanent finetuning of own and Member States‘ activities, of own and other personnel, of own analyses and those of the EU Member States.

Hans-Jürgen Zahorka

Chief Editor, European Union Foreign Affairs Journal




New EUFAJ 4 / 2015 – and our editorial programme in 2016

The new EUFAJ issue no. 4 / 2015 is available under this link: .

This time with the following articles, among others:

  • Presidential Elections in Belarus of  11.10.2015: What an Election Observer Mission Could Find Out
  • The Systematic Roots of Russia’s Recession
  • Debate on Presidential Versus Parliamentary Systems: Should Armenia Opt for the Parliamentary System?
  • Europe’s True Immigration Capacity: What We Can Learn from the US Green Card System
  • Trafficking in Human Beings in Conflict and Post-conflict Situation
  • Foreign Labour Force in the Economy of Modern Russia: Tendencies and Prospects
  • The Democratic Peace Theory
  • From Rapporteur to Coordinator: The Different Roles Taken on by MEPs
  • Gazprom: Seeking a Rapprochement with the EU?
  • Council of Europe’s Vaclav Havel Human Rights Prize 2015 for Ludmilla Alexeeva

It is very easy: EUFAJ is available free of charge, It has been launched some years ago as a non-Profit project by LIBERTAS – Europäisches Institut GmbH. Just send an informal e-maail (if possible also with your postal address and your activities) to If at a later date you want to unsubscribe, you just send an e-mail to the same address with „unsubscribe“. If you want to see any older issues, please, see also under

And this is an extract from our editorial programme 2016 (the headlines may be different, and we reserve all rights in withdrawing any Intention to publish, or to publish in other form than in EUFAJ, or to add any other subject):

  • the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) and ist Impact on EU third countries,
  • Azerbaijan and Human Rights,
  • Turkey after the elections in November 2015,
  • Local government in developing countries,
  • the New EU Foreign Trade Policy,
  • the Faroe Islands and Greenland, Denmark and the EU – in context with plurinationality,
  • a comparison between the Eurasian Economic Union and the EU,
  • what means „Eurasianism“,
  • and many other subjects more …

New Issue 3 / 2015 of EUFAJ is out: From West Balkan to Vietnam

The new issue 3/2015 of „European Union Foreign Affairs JournTal“ (EUFAJ) is out; the link is

Among the articles:

  • Western Balkan Countries and their Potential towards the EU
  • Landlockedness as a Challenge for Development: The Case of Armenia
  • Armenia’s Economic and Security Relations with Russia
  • Georgia’s Trajectory on South Ossetia and Russia’s Creeping Occupation
  • Union for the Mediterranean: €5 Billion Urban Investment in 27 Projects
  • EU agri-food trade in 2014: EU-US Interaction strengthened
  • New Free Trade Agreement between EU and Vietnam
  • Information Technology Agreement (ITA): WTO agreed to trillion-euro global high-tech trade deal
  • For Species Protection in the Balkan: Unknown Flies from Macedonian Mavrovo National Park Threatened by Hydropower Extension

Neues Observatorium für Eurasische Wirtschaftsunion

Die Eurasische Wirtschaftsunion (Eurasian Economic Union; EEU) ist ein neues, zum 1. Januar 2015 gestartetes Gebilde, das unter der Führung von Russland zu stehen scheint und aus Belarus, Kasachstan und Russland besteht, ebenso aus Armenien, das zunächst einen Assoziationsvertrag mit der EU unterschreiben wollte, und auch dem zentralasiatischen Kirgistan, das im Verlauf des Sommers 2015 dazu stoßen soll. Was dahinter steht, wer die dortige „Kommission“ ausmacht (die der EU-Kommission nachempfunden wurde), was die offiziellen Politikbereiche und die faktischen Einschränkungen betrifft, das wird seit einigen Wochen in einem neuen Observatorium, einer Beobachtungsstelle, festgehalten. Dieses Observatorium ist untergebracht bei m „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“ (EUFAJ), einer derzeit nicht-kommerziellen, von LIBERTAS – Europäisches Institut GmbH gesponserter Vierteljahresschrift, die nur auf Englisch erscheint und von einem multinationalen Herausgeberbeirat unter Leitung von Hans-Jürgen Zahorka, ehemaliger Europaabgeordneter und langjähriger Regierungsberater für die EU, UNDP usw., ediert wird. Das EEU-Observatorium steht unter der Leitung der in Deutschland lebenden Armenierin Ofelya Sargsyan M.A., die diesen Teil ihrer Tätigkeit in fließendem Russisch absolviert, in Yerevan/Armenien und Flensburg politikwissenschaftliche Master-Abschlüsse erlangt hat und als Redakteurin bei EUFAJ sowie als Analystin bei LIBERTAS – Europäisches Institut GmbH tätig ist.

In dem neuen Observatorium werden nicht nur Stimmen aus den Mitgliedstaaten der EEU, die sich oft mit der Europäischen Union vergleicht, was aber sehr mit Vorsicht zu genießen ist, gesammelt, sondern auch Quellen zum sog. „Eurasianismus“. Dieser ist eine imperiale Ideologie, wenn auch nicht am Zarismus orientiert, und drückt eine streng antiwestliche Haltung aus. Einer ihrer Hauptvertreter ist heute der Philosoph Alexander Dugin, ein Mann von schillernder Vergangenheit, der dafür plädiert, dass die gesamte Ukraine wieder Russland einverleibt werden soll. Auch der „Eurasianismus“ lehnt sich an der Eurasischen Wirtschaftsunion an, die z. B. in Kasachstan eine ganz andere Zielrichtung kennt.

Das EEU-Observatorium hat jetzt den ersten Teil des EEU-Vertrages auf Englisch übersetzt (siehe, Ausgabe 2/2015); Schritt für Schritt werden die anderen Teile des Vertragswerks übersetzt und kurz kommentiert und – aus Sicht der EU – bewertet werden. Dabei kommen auch Unternehmen zu Wort, die gebeten werden, ihre eigenen Erfahrungen dem Observatorium mitzuteilen – es gibt noch sehr wenig Erfahrungen mit der EEU. Das Observatorium will auch Publikationen zum Thema herausgeben – insoweit ist jede Kooperation oder Erfahrung willkommen (

New EUFAJ 2/2015 – with articles from South Pacific via Ukraine to the Caribbean

The new issue of „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“ (EUFAJ) is out; the link is

Among the articles:

– plurinational states in the EU and third countries (Ofelya Sargsyan),

– interview with Niels Jorgen Thogersen, president of 80 million Europeans („Europeans throughout the world“),

– Turkey – with several articles after the Armenian Genocide, and on the stalling EU process,

– Lilit Mkhitaryan on Armenian local elections (shortcomings and perspectives),

– Marek Dabrowski on the reality of Ukraine’s fiscal arithmetic,

– a short interview with Henri Malosse, EESC President, on his visa ban to Russia – one of the 89, by Carmen Aguilera García,

– short contributions on Russia’s new language minorities, Bosnia’s new SAA, EP targeting tax evasion in developing countries,

– EU – South Pacific: When comes CEPA?, EU – Dominican Republic relations could be intensified (Matthias Major),

– as documentation: the English text of part 1 of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU),

– social inclusion strategy of labour migrants in Russia (Tatyana Bezborodova),

– human development indicators for innovation management in Russia (Sergey Elkin), and many others ,,,


The Boris Nemtsov Report on Russia/Ukraine – Now in English

Some days ago only, the Russian-Troops-in-Ukraine Report by Boris Nemtsov – or better, after his death on 27th February, 2015, this report finished by his friends and colleagues – has been released. Its subject is is the Russian direct participation in the Ukraine conflict, both on Crimea and in East Ukraine (this was, by the way confirmed by OSCE investigators only yesterday).

European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (EUFAJ) is happy to present only some days after its release in Russian language this report now in an unofficial English translation. This is the very first Special Issue of European Union Foreign Affairs Journal.  It can be downloaded under

The special issue also contains the original Russian text.

The Report covers the Crimea annektation, the „vacationing“ Russian troops in Ukraine and their status, interviews with soldiers, the „Load-200“ issue, i.e. the coffins with dead Russian soldiers, the Malaysian Airlines Boeing MH17 shot down over Ukraine, and the economic crisis to which Russia is „striving for“.

Boris Nemtsov should have presented this report a day after he was shot. The person(s) who did this have not yet been found.

Permanent Index of EUFAJ is now up to date

The Permanent Index of European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (EUFAJ) is now up to date – from the first issue 1/2009 (November 2009) until 1/2015 (1st quarter 2015).Proud 116 pages, 1,1 MB, several sections:

– key words

– names

– articles with authors

– articles without authors

– documentation

– book reviews

As everything in life, it will be improved every time, after every evaluated issue. But if one looks for anything, it is practical if you can look in one central, permanent index instead of in one per year.

The index can be downloaded under


Nouvelle coopération avec l’Université européenne de Tbilisi/Géorgie

Il y a une nouvelle coopération entre LIBERTAS – Institut europeen GmbH et la European University (Université européenne) de Tbilisi/Géorgie. Ces jours, Hans-Jürgen Zahorka a signé pour LIBERTAS – Institut européen un „Memorandum of Understanding“, un accord de cadre sur la coopération, avec le Recteur de l’Université européenne, M. Lasha Kandelakishvili. La personne clé dans cette université sera le Doyen de la faculté de droit, des sciences économiques et sociales, M. Sosso Kelenjeridze, qui a fait une partie de ses études en France, avant d’obtenir une reputation de juriste avec une portée internationale. Dans le passé, il avait des postes diverses dans des ministères géorgiens. Chez LIBERTAS – Institut européen GmbH la personne compétente sera Mme. Ofelya Sargsyan M.A., qui est une des éditrices de „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“  et avait atteint un mastère de l’AUA à Yerevan/Arménie et un (études européennes) à l’Université de Flensbourg/Allemagne.



Dans une des réunions sur la coopération, un drapeau européen pour l’Université européenne est décerné aux Recteur, M. Lasha Kandelakishvili (à droite).


Cette coopération s’étendra du dévéloppement de curriculum (par example pour un Mastère aux études européennes) aux conférences scientifiques, universités d’été et aux cours divers, par exemple par des enseignants européens. Dans cette coopération universitaire le tandem franco-allemand va jouer un rôle prominent.

New Cooperation with the European University in Tbilisi/Georgia

There is new European cooperation focussing on the European University in Tbilisi: For LIBERTAS – European Institute GmbH, Hans-Jürgen Zahorka signed these days a Memorandum of Understanding with Lasha  Kandelakishvili, Rector of the European University. The relevant person there is the Dean of the Legal, Economic and Humanities Faculty, Sosso Kelenjeridze, who himself had studied also in France, is a reputated lawyer and has in the past worked in different government ministries; at LIBERTAS – European Institute GmbH the coordinator for this cooperation is Ofelya Sargsyan M.A., who is Junior Editor at European Union Foreign Affairs Journal and had been awarded two Master degrees, one in Yerevan/Armenia (AUA) and one at Flensburg University/Germany.

The cooperation will range from curriculum development (e.g. a Master in European Studies) to scientific conferences, summer schools and a cooperation for single courses (with e.g. compact courses by EU university teachers).


The picture shows the initial round table discussion at the European University in Tbilisi about the possibilities of the cooperation.

New EUFAJ 4/2014: From Moldova to Model European Union

EUFAJ (European Union Foreign Affairs Journal) 4 / 2014 is out, with articles on

  • Moldova, its economic situation, Russia and the EU,
  • what does Russia want with Abkhazia; the new Abkhazia-Russia treaty,
  • migration and Armenia: Genocide, inflow, brain-drain,
  • Turkey and the recognition of Armenian Genocide,
  • Nagorno-Karabakh and the situation after the helicopter downing in November 2014,
  • first Nagorno-Karabakh group in the European Parliament,
  • the Trade Roadmap for the EU Commission, by the EU Business umbrella organisation,
  • Chinese capital and European real estate
  • new political framework for the European bio-based economy,
  • ethical and ethno-religious background of cyclical crises,
  • participatory democracy,
  • uniting Europe’s youth: Model European Union.

Please go to  (on the website temporarily available only under the German flag while the language of all the four flags is English. All the previous EUFAJ numbers can be downloaded from

Complete your collection of EUFAJ issues: Now another number online!

Please find here a new EUFAJ (European Union Foreign Affairs Journal) link to a 232 page double number we have not given to the Internet before. But as you have seen, we have worked hard to fill the gaps during the last months.

In this issue which can be downloaded under this link: you can find, among others, the following contributions:

– Democracy and Human Rights (Sosso Kelenjeridze, Georgia),

– a famous speech by EU Commission President Barroso – State of the Union Address,

– What about Human Rights in Azerbaijan? After the European Song Contest in Baku,

– EU Integration: Armenia and its strategic orientation (Christine Maydossian, Canada),

– Features of Modern Terrorism as a form of conflict expression (Giorgi Bakholdin, Georgia),

– Causes and Development of Terrorism and How It Should Be Fought (Sergei Metelev, Russia),

– Metropolisation in the Former Soviet Union: Temptative Measurement through Hyperlinks Notoriety (Uljama Agibetova, Ivan Samson),

– Tibet – Time is Running Out (Wangpo Bashi),

– Call for an EU Special Coordinatpr for Tibetan Affairs (Kelsang Gyaltsen),

– EU Highlights Trade-Led Growth as Central to Modern Development Agenda

– Most Egyptians Oppose US Economic Aid, Favor Aid from Arab Nations (Ahmed Younis, Mohamed Younis),

– The Systematics of Global Failure and Success (Alec Schaerer, Switzerland),

– Corporate Social Responsibilty Concept and its Implementation in Serbia (Nebojsa Vujkovic),

– Financial and Material Support Obligations in Kyrgyz Family Networks (Altyn Kapalova)

– Europe – a Model for World Wide Democracy? (Olivier Védrine)

+ conference reports, + book reviews.


The General Website is:


EUFAJ 1 – 2 / 2013 is online: Here is the content

Please find here the link of  another issue  of the European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (EUFAJ),  1/2-2013, which is now online:


– an article on the Macedonian party system (compared to Slovakia),

– a breathtaking article about child marriages among the Roma,

– an article about the Elders of the Indian tribes in Canada (First Nations),

and contributions on

– migration and security issues,

– the LLDC character, and conflict prevention in South Sudan,

– the 24 official languages of the EU

– an EU study on protectionism

The Homepage of the Journal is

New issue of EUFAJ (1-2014): Here are the Headlines

A new number of European Union Foreign Affairs Journal is out: 1-2014. With the following content:

– The EU Internal Market in 10 Years Perspective from Accession of Ten Central and Eastern European Countries in 2004 – Lessons Learned for Eastern Partnership Partner States
– Russia under Putin and the Eurasian Union: An Impossible Possibility?
– Belarusian Identity: The Impact of Lukashenka’s Rule
– The Commonwealth of Independent States in Sequence of the Former USSR: A Tool for the Formation of the Eurasian Union?
– Forming a New Energy Security Alliance in North-Eastern Europe
– Transitioning from a Fossil-Fuel to a Green Economy: Government Policy for Private Sector Participation in Trinidad and Tobago
– The Right to Development and Rights-Based Approach to Development: Two Mutually Reinforcing Concepts?
– Stabilizing the Dynamics in the Global Socio-Economic System: Categorial Clarification for Exhaustive Transparency and Sustainability
– With book reviews on Nagorno Karabakh, Cuba and Africa

With authors from Belarus, Ukraine, Trinidad and Tobago, Switzerland, Armenia, Germany, and the USA (book reviews).

Go to the link:

National Minorities in Europe and Their Protection: Two Events in Flensburg and Budapest

Flensburg, European Center for Minority Issues:
Monitoring the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

On July 5, 2013 the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI) organized a high-level experts‘ conference on „Shaping the Frame Across the Cycles“, on Monitoring the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM), in Flensborghus, Flensburg, Germany.

The conference sought to present the experts’ views in the Advisory Committee of the Framework Convention  (ACFC) for the first 15 years of its existence. In the frame of the conference the ECMI staff as well as the invited professionals provided the chronicles of the ACFC; its launch, activities, actions,  achievements as well as impediments it faces.  It is to be mentioned that the ECMI managed to gather the most outstanding experts in regards to the ACFC, among them being the first president of the ACFC, Prof. Rainer Hofmann.  The conference was divided into three sections. To begin with the mandate of the ACFC was described, afterwards the enforcement mechanisms were discussed and lastly, the monitoring systems were under discourse.

The conference was also a tribute to Rainer Hofmann. Moreover, the outcomes of the conference are to be published in a „Festschrift“ in honor to Hofmann for his dedicated excellent experience in the Advisory Committee.

In the end it is to be mentioned that the conference, full of scholastic  and pragmatic analyses regarding the minority issues, their protection and the protection structures, strengths and weaknesses (among which the „monitoring fatigue“ of the Council of Europe Member States) was also spiced with warm opening  and closing words as well as pleasant coffee breaks which provided an excellent floor for further discussions and debates.

The European Centre for Minority Issues, see also under, is funded by the Danish and German governments as well as by the one of Schleswig-Holstein state in North Germany. It has also very efficient outlets in the Caucasus (Georgia) and Kosovo and has an excellent record in any European minority issue, running also an outstanding standing and electronic library.

Tom Lantos Institute, Budapest: Norms and Practices of Minority Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe

In the same token, acknowledging the primacy of ensuring non-discriminatory and tolerant environment for the diverse national minorities as the basis for the societal development and secure atmosphere, the National University of Public Service and the Tom Lantos Institute organized International Summer School on Minority Rights: Norms and Practices in Central and South-Eastern Europe in Budapest, Hungary, from August 4-10, 2013. To the point, the Summer School was organized very painstakingly and meticulously, taking into account the interests and priorities of all and each of the participants. The Budapest-based Tom Lantos Institute is under the direction of Anna-Maria Bíro.

During the widely comprehensive, academic and at the same time interactive lectures it was highlighted that inclusion and participation are the forces contributing to raising the national minorities’ awareness of their duties, responsibilities as well as rights and privileges. Additionally, it was argued that solidarity is an inseparable component for having civic society as well as encouraging pluralistic democratic systems. The whole programme of the Summer School could be divided into two parts. Firstly, the international norms, practices and mechanisms in managing the ethno-cultural diversity in Europe were presented. In the second part of the programme the implementation of minority rights were analyzed. To fulfill the objective various case studies were deployed, among them being Muslim Turks of Western Thrace in Greece, Jewish life and Anti-Semitism, the Hungarian minority protection system, the Serbian system, the Romanian practice as well as the situation in Kosovo. Additionally, the implementation of the Roma rights was discussed.

The Tom Lantos Institute was launched in the context with the long-time US Congressman Tom Lantos, who as Hungarian had survived the Holocaust and was among those American Congressmen who knew perfectly what was going on in different European countries, what led him also to chair the US Delegation for the inter-parliamentary talks with the European Parliament. So it was logical that in the frame of the Summer School, the participants paid a visit to the Jewish Community House in Budapest, where they received the hospitability of the Hungarian Jews, enjoyed an interesting and also entertaining presentation on “Jewish Communities in Central Europe: Revival and Inter-Ethnic Relations Viewed Through Jokes” as well as walked to see the two Synagogues in Budapest. It is to be mentioned that this was not the only occasion to have a meeting with the national minorities’ communities in Hungary.

There was also a field trip to Szentendre, a small town not far from Budapest. Here, an informative and exciting meeting was waiting for the participants. The representatives of the Serbian community presented the history, activities and life of the Serbs in Hungary. Moreover, a Serbian museum and two Orthodox churches were visited.

What is to be added is that the Summer School provided an excellent ground for the experts in the field to have very comprehensive and all-inclusive discussions and debates on various issues related to the minorities, their rights, implementation structures, fatigues as well as successes. The programme was a unique occasion to enrich academic knowledge and skills with the help of the scholars as well as the participants who were all open-minded and sensible specialists of the field, as post graduates or Ph.D. candidates, or in public administration, NGOs or journalism. It was interesting to have discussions with them both in the realm of the lectures as well as during informal meetings.

All in all, the Summer School provided wonderful memories to all of the parties. It enabled to enlarge the scope of knowledge on national minorities, establish new contacts as well as have a nice time and sightseeing in the wonderful capital-city of Hungary, Budapest.


Both the conferences „Shaping the Frame Across the Cycles“ held by ECMI and the Summer School on Minority Rights organized by the National University of Public Service and the Tom Lantos Institute were covered by Ofelya Sargsyan, M.A.,  Junior Editor at the European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (EUFAJ).

This article is also – with several other photos – published on the EUFAJ Website:

A Remark pro domo: EUFAJ Is Now on Facebook

These days EUFAJ has entered Facebook. With this step, we want first to accelerate the communication with our readers and second to enlarge our outreach. At the same time, the recent events in many countries have confirmed that being on Facebook is no mistake for a paper.

It is interesting, how our community of „Likers“ is and will be composed. Just go on your Facebook page, if you have one, and then in the search box („Search for people, places and things“) write „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal„. Then you will be on the page, where in the next time all couple of days an issue of EUFAJ will be mentioned with its content and the links. We also publish our new blog entries, which in the last days had an increase in views of almost 600%

So if you have Facebook, you can be immediately and automatically alerted about our activities – including this blog (however, for this blog one can order easily alerts if a new entry has been made)

This Facebook Innovation for a journal, which for an organisation is totally different compared to an individual, is under the wings of our Junior Editor, Ofelya Sargsyan, who is now also the Social Media Coordinator with EUFAJ.

Hans-Jürgen Zahorka
Chief Editor, EUFAJ

6.4.2013: Gründung des „Rates der europäischen Aserbaidschaner“ – Eine neue Epoche beginnt für die regierungskritischen Kräfte

Am 6. April 2013 wurde in Basel, unter der Führung der international tätigen Haqq & Adalet Association und der West-East Dialogue Academia, und unter der Beteiligung zahlreicher hochstehender Persönlichkeiten der aserbaidschanischen Diaspora in Europa die Gründungskonferenz des Rates der europäischen Aserbaidschaner durchgeführt. Sein Ziel ist die Einigung der verschiedenen regierungskritischen Kräfte in Aserbaidschan. Die Konferenz wurde unter der Teilnahme von 85 Delegierten aus 7 europäischen Ländern abgehalten. Zudem beteiligten sich weitere wichtige Personen der Diaspora aus Russland, Kanada, der Ukraine und der Türkei durch Live-Zuschaltungen über Skype.

Die Eröffnungsrede wurde von Coshgun Feyzullazade gehalten, als Präsident der West-East Dialogue Academia. Er erklärte, dass im ersten Teil der Konferenz die aktuelle Situation in Aserbaidschan diskutiert werden soll. Coshgun Feyzullazade betonte die Unausweichlichkeit des Wandels und unterstrich, dass dieser Prozess durch soziale und gewaltfreie Methoden erreicht werden müsse.

Feyzullazade, der diesen Teil der Konferenz moderierte, las die zahlreichen Gratulationsschreiben vor, die von der aserbaidschanischen Opposition aus Baku gesendet wurden. Zu den Gratulanten gehörte unter anderem der Führer der Partei der aserbaidschanischen Volksfront, Ali Kerimli. Prof. Lale Sevket Haciyeva, die Präsidentin der Partei der aserbaidschanischen Liberalen, richtete Ihre Unterstützung und die guten Wünsche per Live-Telefonschaltung aus. Zudem wurden Gratulations-E-Mails vorgelesen von SP-Nationalrat Andreas Gross, von der Sozialdemokratischen Partei (SP), den Grünen, vom Basler Regierungspräsidenten Guy Morin, von Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, AugenAuf, und von Hans-Jürgen Zahorka, Chefredaktor von „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“.

Anschliessend sprach Gabil Rzayev, Präsident der internationalen Haqq & Adalet Association. Er sagte, dass Haydar Aliyev, der 1969 an die Macht kam, durch seine Politik das Selbstvertrauen des aserbaidschanischen Volkes zunichte gemacht hat. Weiter verwies Rzayev auf den Militärputsch von 1993 durch H. Aliyev, der damals die Weichen für seine Diktatur setzte. Ilham Aliyev, der wie üblich in Diktaturen das Land von seinem Vater geerbt hatte, beutete das Land schamlos aus und festigte die despotische Stellung der Aliyev-Familie. Rzayev unterstrich, dass der Weltgemeinschaft klar gemacht werden müsse, dass Ilham Aliyev ein skrupelloser Diktator ist.

Danach ergriff Prof. Elshad Abdullayev das Wort, ehemaliger Rektor der International University of Aserbaidschan. Abdullayev verwies auf die Art und Weise der Behandlung des Volkes durch die Regierung. Er verglich das Regime mit Besatzungskräften, die gegen das Volk ohne Skrupel vorgehen. Zudem verwies er auf seine persönliche Situation und unterstrich, dass er nicht freiwillig nach Europa kam, sondern von der Regierung unter Druck gestellt wurde. Abdullayev sagte, dass das eigentliche Ziel der Regierung seine Tötung in Europa durch aserbaidschanische Agenten ist.

Atakhan Abilov, Experte auf dem Gebiet des internationalen Rechts, deutete auf die undemokratische Situation in Aserbaidschan hin. Abilov unterstrich wie seine Vorredner, dass das Regime in Aserbaidschan eine Diktatur sei. Zudem sprach Abilov über die Situation in Karabagh. Er sagte, dass gemäss internationalem Recht die Gründung eines zweiten armenischen Staates auf diesem Gebiet nicht möglich sei.

Danach kam der Politologe Surkhan Latifov zu Wort. Er stellte vier Faktoren fest, welche die politischen Prozesse in Aserbaidschan beeinflussen:

1)      Sozioökonomische Faktoren

2)      Die Beziehung zwischen dem Regime und der Opposition

3)      Der Konflikt um Karabagh

4)      Die internationale Situation

Latifov verwies auf die Festnahmen just vor der geplanten Demonstrationen vom 10.März und unterstrich die Intoleranz und Unterdrückung von Oppositionellen durch das Regime. Latifov sagte, dass er trotzdem die Hoffnung habe, dass das Volk in naher Zukunft zum Akteur in der Politik werden könne. Schliesslich unterstrich S. Latifov, dass die Vereinigung der Opposition für eine Demokratisierung in Aserbaidschan unausweichlich sei.

Elnur Mecidli verglich die Situation in Aserbaidschan mit denen in anderen Ländern. Er betonte, dass gemäss der Verfassung Ilham Aliyev in den kommenden Präsidentschaftswahlen eigentlich nicht mehr kandidieren dürfe.

Auch Reshad Gurbanov schloss sich seinen Vordernern an in Bezug auf die diktatorische Regierungsweise des Regimes. Die Ressourcen des Landes seien alle in den Händen des Aliyev-Clans, betonte Qurbanov. Weitere Ansprachen wurden auf dieser Gründungskonferenz von Prof. Canmirze Mirzeyev, Dr. Alec Schaerer, Telman Kazimov, Metin Sahin und Ferhat Akhundov gehalten.

Den zweiten Teil der Konferenz moderierte Surkhan Latifov. Zuerst wurde der Rat der europäischen Aserbaidschaner gegründet. Gabil Rzayev wurde zum Präsidenten des Rats gewählt. Danach ging man zur Wahl der Mitglieder des Rates über. Atakhan Abilov wurde zum Ratssprecher gewählt. Als nächstes wurden die Mitglieder der Revisionsstelle gewählt. Surkhan Latifov wurde zum Präsidenten der Revisionsstelle gewählt, und Elshad Abdullayev wurde zum ersten Vizepräsidenten des Rates erkoren.


European Micro States – Call for Research Cooperation

Within the Editorial Board of „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“ there shall be an open research project, with not yet defined life span, on the subject (preliminary wording): „European Micro States – What has to be changed if they want to access the European Union“.

Outside of the EU there are in Europe countries like Andorra, San Marino, Monaco, Liechtenstein and the Vatican (who however plays a different role than the others), as well as the Faroe Islands (which have the biggest population of all of those, with approx. 45.000 people). While all of these countries are at present not likely to join the EU, in each of them (except the Vatican, which should be excluded from doing so) there were voices in favour of an EU accession. If this case became true, what has to be changed in the EU Treaties, in secondary law and in certain policies of the EU, and perhaps also in these countries, if one or several of these Micro States would want to join the European Union?

EUFAJ wants also to test an open procedure of research and connected research, in the sense that everyone can take part in this project, and it is not bound to any further project leadership. Universities, students. professors, their assistants, think tanks, NGOs, public administrations etc. We will look also later for an external financing, if possible respectively necessary.

Anyone interested in such a kind of project of which the concrete results are not yet defined as well should contact: European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (EUFAJ), LIBERTAS – European Institute GmbH, attn: Hans-Juergen Zahorka, Lindenweg 37, D – 72414 Rangendingen (near Tübingen / Hechingen), Tel. +49 – 7471 – 984996-13 (direct), Fax +49 – 7471 – 984996-19,,

We will inform the readers of our Blog, like those of EUFAJ, regularly about this project.