New EUFAJ 2 / 2017: China, Africa, Latin America, Eastern Partnership, Turkey, Montenegro

The new number 2 / 2017 of „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“ (EUFAJ), an eQuarterly published by LIBERTAS – European Institute GmbH, working pro-European Integration, can be downloaded directly under: http://www.libertas-institut.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/EUFAJ-2-2017.pdf, or via the Website under http://www.libertas-institut.com/eufaj/eufaj-2-2017.  .

EUFAJ is a non-profit project and free of charge. All older issues can be downloaded on our website  www.eufaj.eu where you find other information about EUFAJ.

In 2/2017, you find in EUFAJ the following articles, among others:

  • Hard Times for Soft Power: Germany’s China Challenge (Angela Stanzel)
  • The Turkish Economy Today
  • The „Marshall Plan with Africa“: Africa and Europe – A New Partnership for Development and Peace
  • Women in Power – The Example of Latin America (Carmen Aguilera Garcia), Statistics on Women in National Parliaments
  • Security Threats Caused by Climate Change – Case Study on the Republic of Moldova (Gheorghe Racovita)
  • Regional Geopolitical Changes and the Russian-Armenian Relations (Lilit Vardanian)
  • The Prospects of the EU–Armenia Partnership within the ENP Review: Is a Eurasian Economic Union – EU balance feasible? (Aram Terzyan)
  • Vive la France or what does the victory of Emmanuel Macron mean for Europe and Eastern Partnership Countries? (Grisha Aghajanyan)
  • The Consolidation of Inter-Institutional Cooperation and Communication Mechanism on CSDP-related Matters – Study on the Republic of Georgia (George Niculescu, Grazvydas Jasutis, Kakha Gogolashvili)
  • Public Administration Reform at the Local and Regional Level in the Eastern Partnership Countries – Developments since 2012 in the Field of Decentralisation (Vyacheslav Tolkovanov, Juraj Nemec et al.)
  • Salina Ulcinj: European natural treasure still threatened in Montenegro

We welcome contributions from the personal and professional environment of our readers – scientific ones or policy-focused, on international, comparative subjects, or on  EU /  third country relations, inner-country developments, or international jpolicy etc.). All articles are published in English. We do not raise any fees for publishing articles.

 

New EUFAJ 1/2017: Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood, Belarus, Balkan, Albanian rivers, Faroes, Nagorno-Karabakh Referendum, Azerbaijan arrest warrants, Armenian NGO chief deported from Russia, warfare by private companies …

The new issue 1/2017 of European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (EUFAJ) is out. See articles on:

  • EU and Egypt Revolution after 2012,
  • Muslim Brotherhood should be declared terrorist,
  • private enterpreneurs running wars,
  • EU Fund for Sustainable Development – a new instrument,
  • Belarus crisis and Europe,
  • Russian Deportation of an Armenian NGO chief,
  • the Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) referendum from 20.2.2017,
  • Azerbaijan arrest warrants against European parliamentarians,
  • Faroe Islands will hold referendum – with far reaching possible consequences,
  • Western Balkans and the EU Annual Reports about possible membership,
  • Balkan rivers and environment: Sava in Serbia, Mavrovo Park in Macedonia, Vjosa valley in Albania: national park vs. hydropower plants,
  • EU for Multilateral Investment Courts,
  • Let’s go to Bornholm Island – with a new European initiative.

See this issue of EUFAJ under: http://www.libertas-institut.com/eufaj/eufaj-1-2017/

 

 

Tbilisi/Georgia, EaP Civil Society Forum: Is Donald Trump enemy no. 1 for Europe’s freedom?

Donald Trump is Europe’s enemy no. 1 – because he wants to violate art. 5 NATO Treaty on the mutual defense clause and wants the US‘ intervention to be dependent „if the bill has been paid“. A real problem for European NATO states, and no miracle that Putin praised Trump to be a „wise man“. This was no. 1 out of 10 policy theses set up by Hans-Jürgen Zahorka, Chief Editor of European Union Foreign Affairs Journal (www.eufaj.eu), during an Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum in Tblisi/Georgia end of July 2016, when speaking on „Security Challenges of the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood“. This event was organised jointly by the EaP Civil Society Forum, Brussels (www.eap-csf.eu), represented by its Co-Chair Krzysztof Bobinski, and the Liberal Academy Tbilisi, whose director Lasha Tughashi is also National Coordinator of the EaP CSF National Platform in Georgia. It was opened furthermore by Kakha Gogolashvili, Director of EU Studies at Rondeli Foundation (GFSIS), and Ambassador Janos Herman, head of the EU Delegation in Georgia. Here is what Hans-Jürgen Zahorka expressed:

Challenge no. 2: Erdogan. While it was legitimate to do everything necessary against a military putsch against a democratically elected government, the behaviour of the Turkish president after the putsch attempt shakes the whole region: not only in most of the EaP Caucasus countries there is now uncertainty, incalculability what Turkey wants really. He breaks democracy and human rights in a big NATO state, and his attempts to flirt with Putin are neither credible nor acceptable for NATO. There is a lack of consistency in Turkish NATO membership attitude, and the alliance has somehow to react, as there is a rule that NATO means also democracy, human rights and openness. This is also the fundament of the EU-NATO joint declaration from 8.7.2016.

Challenge no. 3 is nationalism, populism, lack of solidarity between European states- as there are populist and nationalist parties now in every country, and solidarity e.g. in the refugee question is often just not existing. Had the EU Member States found a solution for a proportional (including economic strength) distribution of asylum seekers, there would have been no need for a shaky Turkish refugee agreement. This new egoism is also expressed by the rising number of protectionist acts in the WTO member states, at present 22 per month, and of course by the Brexit of the UK from the EU, which brings a high economic damage – and this mainly to the UK. So the danger comes from within – also in the form of xenophobe, racist, glorifying the own country populist parties (partly financed by Russian institutions!), which are anti-Western, anti-liberal, anti-European integration oriented. In short: who want to turn back the wheel, which requires a vivid, attentive civil society in all the EU and EaP member states.

Challenge no. 4: CSDP (EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy) will gain momentum within the EU – in particular if Trump ever would win and the Brexit approaches. Then the Europeans really have to do something. The German Federal Armed Forces White Book from July 2016 is a signal for the right way, in stressing a European integrated defense, but of course also the EU Strategy Paper from a week before.

Challenge no 5: We will get an EU army – but (unfortunately) not today or tomorrow, but after tomorrow. The development will go step by step, taking also in account possible external threats which may accelerate it. Maybe this army will be much more „electronic“ than a traditional army, but there will be EU structures. It can be taken for sure that unlike in former conflicts a „levée en masse“ won’t be neither necessary nor possible, but due to the modern ways of tomorrow’s warfare, electronic warfare, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) etc. will play a more pivotal role then anytime before – also in preventing such conflicts. We have already pooled monetary policy, when national competences don’t do it anymore. We can also pool our armed forces.

Challenge no. 6: hybrid threats. This is now a clear part of the reaction potential under the CSDP, and the EU reaction (and the EU is more able than NATO to respond to hybrid threats!) was started with a Joint Declaration from 6.4.2016. It should be directed against all ‚divide et impera‘ and attempts to destabilize a country. In the EaP, this can be done with a better know-how about the potential of small enterprises. So social unrest can be prevented – and the economy can be brought to thriving mode. In this context, I see an urgent need for informing SMEs about the chapters of the free trade agreements, where signed, to be de facto implemented – and they should be much better known to the economy. Hybrid threats shall also – see proposal no. 18 of the Joint Declaration – be treated together between EaP countries and the EU. There will be common risk assessments, and analyses and action plans of common activities. The EU, however, is asymmetrically concerned by hybrid threats, which imposes the chance for EaP countries to tell their own experiences in some countries of the EU. To meet civil society there should be a new task for the EaP civil society.

Callenge no. 7: Terrorism.. EaP countries are affected differently, but this can change very fast. In this context, a full role of the INTCEN EU Intelligence Centre must be advocated, with compulsory exchange of information. EaP countries can and should take part in this exchange – to the benefit of all.

Challenge no. 8: The EU was not able to prevent frozen conflicts and conflicts in its Neighbourhood. No miracle, as no instruments were available. But for the future, the EU must have a close look on its geographic environment. It is advocated, n this context, to explore the possible deplacement of EU peacekeepers to Nagorno-Karabakh, together with simultaneous EU-monitored negotiations which might last for many years. Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as the directly concerned Karabakhis should and could agree to this – and they would, in view of the alternatives which are not possible for various reasons (Russia, USA, OSCE, NATO).

Challenge no. 9: The EU and the EaP countries should endorse the strengthening of the OSCE – with a binding mediation mechanism, with armed peacekeepers etc. Countries or regional insurgents etc. who do not recognise the legitimacy of the OSCE must be isolated as far as possible, and modern communication can also contribute to keep a distance between these de-facto governments and the populations.

Challenge no. 10: The whole EU and the EaP countries, if possible, should endorse a value-oriented legislation and state-building. Security is more than the absence of war. In this context, the principle of being firm on principles and values of the EU while dialoguing with Russia is right. Borders cannot be changed by force. And the rules as in art. 2 Treaty of the EU can be accepted also by every EaP state, as they represent the common denominator of European civilisation: human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, rule of law, human rights, minority protection, and this in a society of pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, ustice, solidarity and gender equality.

***

See also the three illustrated posts on EUFAJ’s Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/eufaj

 

New EUFAJ 1 / 2016: From EU-China relations to Corruption in the Balkans

The 1st quarter issue 2016 of „European Union Foreign Affairs Journal“ can be downloaded now. EUFAJ, an eQuarterly is a non-profit project and edited by LIBERTAS – European Institute GmbH, a pro-European Integration acting think tank, and an Editorial Advisory Board. The editors have experience in working in EU or EU Member State institutions, or from universities  We will put it gradually on a commercial basis, but it will remain available for free.

Please, have a look at the new EUFAJ issue no. 1 / 2016 which is available under this link: http://www.libertas-institut.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/EUFAJ-1-2016.pdf.

This time with the following articles, among others

  • European Union – China Relations
  • The Asia-Pacific Region and the European Union
  • How to Work for EU Foreign Policy Goals in the UN
  • Lessons for the EU from Denmark’s Relations with Greenland and the Faroe Islands – Secession on the State and Supra-State Level
  • Does Russia Have an Imperialistic Foreign and Security Policy? – A Discourse on Empires
  • Is Russia Withdrawing from Rule of Law Principles?
  • Azerbaijan: Searching for the ‘Armenian Lobby’
  • Corruption in the Western Balkans: Its Impact on Governance
  • The Conduct of the Constitutional Referendum in Armenia on 6 December, 2015
  • Rural Development in Armenia: Significance of Non-Farm Activity
  • Strategic Challenges for a New Model of European Economic Development
  • Intellectual Property in Kosovo: The Case of Musical Works
  • Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of Short-lived Climate Forcers

If you want to see the older issues (incl. a Special with the English text of the Boris Nemtsov Report), please see under www.eufaj.eu. There you find also other information about EUFAJ and its editors.

We welcome contributions – scientific ones or policy-focused, on international, comparative subjects, or views of EU /  third country relations. You can always ask if a special subject would be convenient or just send them to eufaj@libertas-institut.com.  Word format would be appreciated. We do not raise any fees for published articles.

We are also accessible on Facebook, where you can be informed about our publications and many other activities: www.facebook.com/eufaj. EUFAJ can also be reached via LinkedIn – under http://linkedin.com, then under „EUFAJ“  in the Search Box.

With this publication, we offer a permanent analysis of Europe’s foreign, international and comparative policy in all its facets – 4 x a year, with 100-260 pages each time. This subject is getting more and more important – without doubt.

 

The EU should establish a real Intelligence Service

Since several years, the European diplomatic service (European Extermal Action Service, EEAS) disposes of a small intelligence service unit, where less tan 100 people work, called INTCEN. It is jealously „supervised“ by national governments. These are not the „European spies“, and there is no James Bond smell in the air, anyway. The studies made are sometimes questioned, and there is a lot work done on the basis of open sources (which is indispensable for intelligence Services, too). The work of INTCEN is hardly discussed, and the work which could be done by them not either.

However, the terrorist events since mid-November 2015 in Paris, and elsewhere, brought a new push to these discussions. The ALDE chairman in the European Parliament, Guy Verhofstadt, pleaded in the meantime for a European Intelligence Service, and some Member States‘ ministers of interior pleaded, for evident reasons, for a closer cooperation between the EU intelligence services. This is indeed necessary – only a minority of services has effectuated a necessary information exchange about possible terrorists by the end of the year, which had been approved on governments‘ level.

What we need in the European Union, is a real military and extremist-oriented Intelligence Service, in addition – and in cooperation with – all the national services. A permanent informaton exchange, in the sense of a two-way traffic, has to be anchored legally, in order to have it at all. The same also for a parliamentary supervision, for which a special committee of the European Parliament should be created, based on the experience of some Member States. Art. 42-47 Treaty of the European Union(TEU) allow this, in my provisional legal opinion, even without treaty changes; art. 42 (6) allowing also activities of a part of Member States. It would just need the courage of some of them to launch an activity. We do do not need a new EU agency or similar, we just need to upgrade INTCEN, give them a reasonable legal framework, give them reasonable tasks which may consist of the coordination and compulsory information exchange between Member States‘ agencies. Whoever observes the external policy analytics capacity of the EU should not say „forget it“ and be allowed for closure of activities – just in contrary. We need also here „more Europe“ – an intelligence centre at least for coordination, with significantly more staff than now (could be also seconded from Member States‘ agencies), and with reasonable competences, and a permanent finetuning of own and Member States‘ activities, of own and other personnel, of own analyses and those of the EU Member States.

Hans-Jürgen Zahorka

Chief Editor, European Union Foreign Affairs Journal

http://www.eufaj.eu

 

 

 

New EUFAJ 4 / 2015 – and our editorial programme in 2016

The new EUFAJ issue no. 4 / 2015 is available under this link: http://www.libertas-institut.com/eufaj/eufaj-4-2015/ .

This time with the following articles, among others:

  • Presidential Elections in Belarus of  11.10.2015: What an Election Observer Mission Could Find Out
  • The Systematic Roots of Russia’s Recession
  • Debate on Presidential Versus Parliamentary Systems: Should Armenia Opt for the Parliamentary System?
  • Europe’s True Immigration Capacity: What We Can Learn from the US Green Card System
  • Trafficking in Human Beings in Conflict and Post-conflict Situation
  • Foreign Labour Force in the Economy of Modern Russia: Tendencies and Prospects
  • The Democratic Peace Theory
  • From Rapporteur to Coordinator: The Different Roles Taken on by MEPs
  • Gazprom: Seeking a Rapprochement with the EU?
  • Council of Europe’s Vaclav Havel Human Rights Prize 2015 for Ludmilla Alexeeva

It is very easy: EUFAJ is available free of charge, It has been launched some years ago as a non-Profit project by LIBERTAS – Europäisches Institut GmbH. Just send an informal e-maail (if possible also with your postal address and your activities) to eufaj@libertas-institut.com. If at a later date you want to unsubscribe, you just send an e-mail to the same address with „unsubscribe“. If you want to see any older issues, please, see also under www.eufaj.eu.

And this is an extract from our editorial programme 2016 (the headlines may be different, and we reserve all rights in withdrawing any Intention to publish, or to publish in other form than in EUFAJ, or to add any other subject):

  • the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) and ist Impact on EU third countries,
  • Azerbaijan and Human Rights,
  • Turkey after the elections in November 2015,
  • Local government in developing countries,
  • the New EU Foreign Trade Policy,
  • the Faroe Islands and Greenland, Denmark and the EU – in context with plurinationality,
  • a comparison between the Eurasian Economic Union and the EU,
  • what means „Eurasianism“,
  • and many other subjects more …

New Issue 3 / 2015 of EUFAJ is out: From West Balkan to Vietnam

The new issue 3/2015 of „European Union Foreign Affairs JournTal“ (EUFAJ) is out; the link is http://www.libertas-institut.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/EUFAJ-3-2015.pdf.

Among the articles:

  • Western Balkan Countries and their Potential towards the EU
  • Landlockedness as a Challenge for Development: The Case of Armenia
  • Armenia’s Economic and Security Relations with Russia
  • Georgia’s Trajectory on South Ossetia and Russia’s Creeping Occupation
  • Union for the Mediterranean: €5 Billion Urban Investment in 27 Projects
  • EU agri-food trade in 2014: EU-US Interaction strengthened
  • New Free Trade Agreement between EU and Vietnam
  • Information Technology Agreement (ITA): WTO agreed to trillion-euro global high-tech trade deal
  • For Species Protection in the Balkan: Unknown Flies from Macedonian Mavrovo National Park Threatened by Hydropower Extension